2021-04-18 10:01:48

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ENGLISH This terrible tragedy took place at scarcely six yards from the Netherland frontier, for the burgo101master's house stands by a road half Belgian and half Netherland. The Netherland soldiers who were doing frontier-duty on the latter part had to fly from the mad shooting of the Germans. They hid behind a wall that was quickly full of bullet-holes. The German soldiers spent a considerable time guzzling the burgomaster's wine, which they looted, and afterwards went off in the direction of Tongres.Machines and tools operating by percussive action, although they comprise a numerous class, and are applied in nearly all mechanical operations, have never received that amount of attention in text-books which the importance of the machines and their extensive use calls for. Such machines have not even been set off as a class and treated of separately, although the distinction is quite clear between machines with percussive action, and those with what may be termed direct action, both in the manner of operating and in the general plans of construction. There is, of course, no lack of formul? for determining the measure of force, and computing the dynamic effect of percussive machines acting against a measured or assumed resistance, and so on; but this is not what is meant. There are certain conditions in the operation of machines, such as the strains which fall upon supporting frames, the effect produced upon malleable material when struck or pressed, and more especially of conditions which may render percussive or positive acting machines applicable to certain purposes; but little explanation has been given which is of value to practical men.As to the practical results which may be attained by a gauging system, it may be said that they are far in advance of what is popularly supposed, especially in Europe, where gauges were first employed.

Very sleepy, I went on listening ... listening ...112 probably until I fell asleep again, for I cannot remember what happened after.

"Could you ever have thought ... that ... that ... such ... a cruel ... fate would overwhelm us? What crime did these poor people commit? Have we not given all we had? Have we not strictly obeyed their commands? Have we not done more than they asked for? Have we not charitably nursed their wounded in this House? Oh! they profess deep gratitude to me. But ... why then? There is nothing left in the House for the aged refugees whom we admitted, for the soldiers we nurse; our doctor has been made a prisoner and taken away, and we are without medical help. This is nothing for the Sisters and myself, but all these unfortunate creatures ... they must have food...."Opposed to the maintenance of standard dimensions are the variations in size due to temperature. This difficulty applies alike to gauging implements and to parts that are to be tested; yet in this, as in nearly every phenomenon connected with matter, we have succeeded in turning it to some useful purpose. Bands of iron, such as the tires of wheels when heated, can be 'shrunk' on, and a compressive force and security attained, which would be impossible by forcing the parts together both at the same temperature. Shrinking has, however, been almost entirely abandoned for such joints as can be accurately fitted.

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"No, I've none to sell.""The Burgomaster."Near Herstal the Germans were crossing by the large bridge, which the Belgians had preserved to their own disadvantage.

Some makers of steam-hammers have so perfected the automatic class, that they may be instantly changed so as to work with either dead blows or elastic blows at pleasure, thereby combining all the advantages of both principles. This brings the steam-hammer where it is hard to imagine a want of farther improvement."Oh yes, it has been destroyed already a couple of times, but we shall teach them a lesson! Why did not the Belgians allow us to pass through their country? What can their little army do against us? As soon as a sufficient number have crossed we shall go for these forts, then on to Brussels, and within a fortnight we shall be in Paris. Lige we have taken already."The first principle to be pointed out in regard to belts, to distinguish them from shafts as a means of transmitting power, is that power is communicated by means of tensile instead of torsional strain, the power during transmission being represented in the difference of tension between the driving and the slack side of belts. In the case of shafts, their length, or the distance to which they may be extended in transmitting power, is limited by torsional resistance; and as belts are not liable to this condition, we may conclude that unless there are other difficulties to be contended with, belts are more suitable than shafts for transmitting power throughout long distances. Belts suffer resistance from the air and from friction in the bearings of supporting pulleys, which are necessary in long horizontal belts; with these exceptions they are capable of moving at a very high rate of speed, and transmitting power without appreciable loss.

Very large divisions marched from Vis to the pontoon bridge in the direction of Tongres. After the Lige forts had been taken the bridge might be passed in perfect safety. All day long troops came along that road without interruption. I could quite see that the soldiers who were at Vis the previous day, and brought about the conflagration, were gone, for they had left their traces behind. All along the road lay parts of bicycles, shoes, instruments, toys, and so on, everything new77 and evidently looted from the shops. Very valuable things were among them, everything crushed and smashed by the cavalry horses, the clumsy munition and forage waggons, or the heavy wheels of the guns.As I was listening to that hymn the storms in my heart subsidedstorms raised by so many scenes witnessed during the day; but as soon as the sonorous voices were still, I heard again the dull boom ... boom ... boom ... of the guns. That dire reality!...4. The cost of construction and durability.

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The terrified little sister was unable to stammer anything more, and in great fear suddenly closed the little shutter again.But the Germans were efficient, for during the night they had laid down the rails on which in the morning they transported parts of the heavy ordnance that would demolish all the Belgian defences.

It may be assumed that the same conditions apply to the standards of a common planing machine, but the case is different; the upright framing is easily made strong enough by increasing its depth; but the strain upon running joints is as the distance from them at which a force is applied, or to employ a technical phrase, as the amount of overhang. With a moving platen the larger and heavier a piece to be planed, the more [132] firmly a platen is held down; and as the cross section of pieces usually increases with their depth, the result is that a planing machine properly constructed will act nearly as well on thick as thin pieces.The sudden and varied resistance to line shafts tends to loosen couplings, destroy gearing, and produce sudden strains that are unknown in other cases; and shafting arranged with the usual proportions for transmitting power will soon fail if applied to driving trip-hammers. Rigid connections or metal attachments ace impracticable, and a slipping belt arranged so as to have the tension varied at will is the usual and almost the only successful means of transmitting power to hammers. The motion of trip-hammers is a curious problem; a head and die weighing, together with the irons for attaching them, one hundred pounds, will, with a helve eight feet long, strike from two to three hundred blows a minute. This speed exceeds anything that could be attained by a direct reciprocal motion given to the hammer-head by a crank, and far exceeds any rate of speed that would be assumed from theoretical inference. The hammer-helve being of wood, is elastic, and acts like a vibrating spring, its vibrations keeping in unison with the speed of the tripping points. The whole machine, in fact, must be constructed upon a principle of elasticity throughout, and in this regard stands as an exception to almost every other known machine. The framing for supporting the trunnions, which one without experience would suppose should be very rigid and solid, is found to answer best when composed of timber, and still better when this timber is laid up in a manner that allows the structure to spring and [107] yield. Starting at the dies, and following back through the details of a trip-hammer to the driving power, the apprentice may note how many parts contribute to this principle of elasticity: Firstthe wooden helve, both in front of and behind the trunnion; nextthe trunnion bar, which is usually a flat section mounted on pivot points; thirdthe elasticity of the framing called the 'husk,' and finally the frictional belt. This will convey an idea of the elasticity required in connecting the hammer-head with the driving power, a matter to be borne in mind, as it will be again referred to.

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Apr-18 10:01:48